immediate是什么意思_immediate是什么意思中文

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45. spread v. 传播;扩散;张开,展开

词形变化:

过去式spread,过去分词spread

用法小结:

①表示“扩散,蔓延”,指影响更多的人或地方,后面可跟介词through/over/among等。例如:

The disease spread rapidly among the poor.

疾病在穷人中间迅速传播。

②表示“流传;散布,传播”,指信息或观点,可及物可不及物;其后可跟介词to/through/over等。例如:

Word spread quickly that she was leaving.

她要离开的消息迅速传开。

immediate是什么意思_immediate是什么意思中文

③表示“张开,伸开”,指手臂、手指、腿等;其后常接out。例如:

She spread her arms and the child ran towards her.

她张开双臂,孩子向她跑来。

(2019,浙江卷,词汇运用)

40. More and more people have realized the importance of spreading our _____________(传统的) culture.

46. standard n.&adj. 标准(的 )

用法小结→关联词组:

living standard=standard of living生活水平;

up to standard达到标准

名词用法:表示“水平,标准,规格,规范”,其后常接介词of:

How do you think of the general standard of education there?

immediate是什么意思_immediate是什么意思中文

你觉得那里教育的整体水准如何?

形容词用法:

①表示“正常的,标准的,普通的”,形容普遍接受的,相当于normal。例如:

This is our standard price.

这是我们的标准价格。

②表示“标准的”,指形状、大小、质量等。例如:

We make shoes in standard and wide sizes.

我们制造标准码和加宽码的鞋子。

词性转换:

standardiz(s)e v.使标准化,使统一;

standardiz(s)ation n.标准化;

standardiz(s)ed adj.标准化的

反义词:non-standard adj.不标准的,不规范的;不规则的

(2019,山东卷,阅读A)The United Nations has standards for safe listening.

47. staten. 状态,情形;国家;(美国的)州

关联词组:

state of mind心理状态,心境;

mental state精神状态

用法小结:

①表示“状况,状态,情况,情形”,指人的身体或心理状况或指物,相当于condition;其后常接介词of;

“处于……状态”用in…state表示。例如:

When we bought the house, it was in a terrible state.

我们买下这栋房子时,它的状况很糟糕。

②即可指“国家”,也可指国家的“州,邦”等。例如:

WTO member states世贸组织成员国;

the state government州政府

(2019,江苏卷,阅读填空)Emper or Qinshihuang united (统一) the seven majorstates into one country where the Chinese writing system began to develop in one direction.

48. stay n.&v. 停留,逗留,呆;保持

用法小结:

名词用法:可数名词,但一般以单数出现,常和介词in/at搭配,和形容词long/short搭配。例如:

I had a short stay in that famous hotel.

我在那家有名的旅馆住过一小段时间。

动词用法:

①实义动词,表示“停留,逗留,留下”或者“暂住”,不及物动词,常和各种副词或介词搭配使用,如

stay(at) home呆在家;

stay for+ time /暂住多久;

stay in+ place呆在/暂住某地;

stayhere/there留在这里/那里;例如:

I stayed for a year in Paris to study art.

我在巴黎待了一年学习艺术。

②连系动词,表示“维持,保持原状”,

stay+ 形容词;

stay+ away/in/on;等。例如:

I can't stay awake any longer.

我瞌睡得再也熬不住了。

Stay away from my daughter!

不要缠着我女儿!

同义词:keep/remain v.保持,维持

(2019,浙江卷,阅读D)

2.- Sir, did you enjoy your stay in our________________?

- Yes, I slept well and I like thebreakfast.

A. hotel B. school

C. factory D. company

49. steal v. 偷,窃取

词形变化:过去式stole,过去分词stolen

用法小结:

可指偷别人的东西,也可指剽窃观点等。常用于

steal sth. from sb/sth..结构。例如:

He’d stolen the flowers from our garden.

他偷了我们花园里的花。

A well-known scientist was punished for stealing his student’s idea.

一位著名科学家因剽窃学生观点受到惩罚。

词性转换:

stolen adj.偷走的;

stealthily adv.暗地里

(2019,江苏卷,阅读D)It was his job to keep the woods safe and to make sure that nobody stole the king's deer.

50. stepn. 脚步;台阶,梯级;v. 走,跨步

用法小结→关联词组:

step by step逐步地;

first step第一步,首要步骤;

next step下一步;

watch your step注意脚下

名词用法:

1.表示“脚步,步”,常与动词take搭配,与副词back/forward搭配。例如:

Tom took a step back and held the dooropen.

汤姆后退一步,把门撑开着。

2.表示“梯级,台阶”。例如:

He climbed the wooden steps and rang the bell.

他爬上木楼梯,按响门铃。

3.表示“步骤,措施”,指一系列行动中的一步,相当于action/measure;

常和动词take搭配;

step后面可接in(doing) sth.或todo sth.;

还可接towards表示方向。例如:

The president took immediate steps to stop the fighting.

总统立即采取措施阻止战斗。

an important step towards peace

通往和平的重要一步

动词用法:

1.表示“跨步,迈步”,其后常接

forward/back/down/into等词。例如:

He stepped back to let me through.

他后退一步让我通过。

2.表示“踩,踏”,其后常接in/on等介词。例如:

You’re stepping on my foot.

你踩到我的脚了。

(2019,浙江卷,阅读D)The hospital can then take extra steps to take care of that baby so he or she does not get sick.

51. stickv. 粘住;卡住;坚持;n. 木棒(棍),枝条

用法小结→词形变化:

过去式stuck,过去分词stuck

关联词组:

stick together粘在一起;在一起,团结一致;

stick to sth.坚持(做某事,不怕困难)

动词用法:

1.表示“粘,贴”,可及物可不及物,常和介词on/to/in等搭配。例如:

He stuck a stamp on the envelope.

他把一张邮票贴到信封上。

stick the broken pieces together.

把碎片粘到一起。

2.表示“卡主,动不了”,

stick in sth.卡在……里面;

The key has stuck in the lock.

钥匙卡在锁里了。

名词用法:

1.表示“枝条,柴枝”,指树的组成部分。例如:

They collected sticks to start the fire.

他们捡来树枝生火。

2.指某些作为工具的“棍/签/条/槌”,或“条(棍)状物”。例如:

My Aunt walks with a stick.

我姑妈走路要拄拐棍。

词性转换:

stuck adj.被卡主的,不能动的;

sticky adj.粘(性)的;

sticker n.张贴物

(2019,湖北卷,单项填空)

37一Everyone should stick to his dream.

一Yes.A life without a dream is like a bird without ________, which can't fly.

A. wings B. water

C.clouds D. food

52. stopv. 停,停止;阻止; n. 停;(停车)站

用法小结:

动词用法:

1.表示“(使)停止,(使)终止”、“暂停,中止”,指不再继续;或“停下来”,指不再移动;

stop doing sth.停止做某事(同一件事);

stop to do sth.停下来做某事(另一件事);口语中常用

stop it/that表示“停下,住手”。例如:

Please stop crying and tell me what's wrong.

快别哭了,告诉我出了什么事。

Stop it! You're hurting me.

住手!你把我弄疼了。

2.表示“防止,阻止”,相当于prevent;

stop sb./sth.from doing sth.阻止……做某事。例如:

The rain didn’t stop us from enjoying the trip.

那场雨没有妨碍我们享受旅行的乐趣。

名词用法:

1.表示“停止”的含义,常用于

come to a stop(某事)停止;

bring sth.to a stop停止(结束)某事。例如:

The UN is trying to bring the war to a stop.

联合国试图结束这场战争。

2.表示“车站”,或“中途停留(处)”,指停留的动作或指所停留的地点。例如:

Our first stop was Paris.

我们的第一站是巴黎。

反义词:continue v.继续

(2019,浙江卷,词汇运用)It just takes a moment to stop and pick something up off the ground.

53. strange adj. 奇怪的,奇特的;陌生的

用法小结:

1.表示“奇怪的,不寻常的,不可思议的”;常见于

something strange,

It’s strange that等结构。例如:

It's strange (that) we haven't heard from him.

奇怪,我们一直没有他的消息。

2.表示“陌生的,不熟悉的”;

strange to sb.对某人来说很陌生。例如:

At first the place was strange to me.

起先我对这个地方不熟悉。

词性转换:

strangely adv.奇怪地,奇妙地,不可思议地;

stranger n.陌生人,外人(同时也是strange的比较级形式);

strangeness n.陌生,冷淡

反义词:familiar adj.熟悉的

(2019,江苏卷,单项填空)

5.The flying squirrel might be one of __________ animals you could meet during the trip.

A. strange B. stranger

C. strangest D. the strangest

54. strict adj. 严格的,严密的;严苛的

用法小结:

1.可形容对人要求高,表示“严格的,严厉的”;常用于

be strict about sth.对某事很严格,

be strict with sb.对某人很严厉,严格

be strict in sth.对做的某事很严格,结构。例如:

She's very strict about things like homework.

她对作业之类的事要求非常严格。

They were always very strict with their children.

他们对子女一向十分严格。

2.也可修饰命令、规则等,表示“必须严格遵守的”,常和rule/law/limit等搭配。例如:

French privacy laws are very strict.

法国的隐私法非常严格。

词性转换:

strictly adv.严格地;

strictness n.严格,严密

(2019,江苏卷,阅读A)

23. Why are there two cartooning classes on the program?

A. Because the classes are for different age groups.

B. Because more time is needed to learn cartooning

C. Because there is a strict limit on numbers for each class.

D. Because some children might want to do both the classes.

55. strongadj. 强(壮)的;坚固的;强烈的;坚强的

用法小结:

1.表示“强壮的,力气大的”,形容体魄,指能干重活,举起重物等;常修饰hands/arms/muscles等。例如:

He picked her up in his big strong arms.

他用粗壮的双臂将她抱起来。

2.表示“坚强的,坚定的;不会动摇的”,形容意志、感情或观点等。例如:

Laura had a strong character.

劳拉个性坚强。

3.表示“坚固的,结实的”,形容物体不易破损或损坏。例如:

The locks on the doors were solid and strong.

门上的锁都很坚固结实。

4.表示“强大的,影响力大的”,或“强烈的”,相当于powerful,常用来修饰power/influence等。例如:

Such feelings may have a strong influence over your decisions.

这种情感可能对你的决定有很大影响。

词性转换:

strongly adv.强有力地;激烈地;

strength n.力量;力气;

strengthen v.变强;加强

(2019,北京卷,完形)

And moments of failure like this build ___20___ —since then I’ve learned to faced is appointment and grown stronger.

20.A. trust B. pride

C. character D. support

56. stupid adj. 愚蠢的,笨的

用法小结:

可用来形容人,表示“笨的,头脑迟钝的”;形容事物,表示“愚蠢的,傻的”。例如:

I couldn’t do it, and it made me feel stupid.

这件事我做不来,这让我感到自己很愚蠢。

Whose stupid idea was this?

这是谁的蠢主意?

词性转换:

stupidly adv.愚蠢地;

stupidity n.愚蠢;糊涂事

同义词:

silly adj.傻的,愚蠢的:

silly的语气要比stupid温和许多。例如:

Don’t be so silly! There’s nothing wrong with you.

别傻了!你什么问题都没有。

反义词:smart/clever adj.聪明的

(2019,浙江卷,语法填空)This old man seemed pretty stupid. But are we so much smarter?

(2019,浙江卷,阅读D)

30. The overall tone (总基调) of this reading is _______________________.

A. sad and personal

B. personal and scientific

C. informative but silly

D. scientific and informative

57. subjectn. 题目,主题;学科,科目;主语

用法小结:

①表示“主题,题目,话题”,指对话、讨论、书、电影等;

on the subject (of)关于……主题;

change the subject转换话题;例如:

Ihave nothing more to say on the subject.

关于这个问题,我再没有要说的了。

②在学校方面,表示“学科,科目;课程”,例如:

My favourite subject is math.

我最喜欢的学科是数学。

③在语法方面,表示“主语”,与宾语object相对应。

词性转换:

subjective adj.主观的;个人的;

subjectively adv.主观地

同义词:clever adj.聪明的

(2019,江苏卷,阅读D)

32.Why does Sam say, "And think about it.: what helps you to be good at sport?"

A.To change the subject.

B. To introduce his next reason.

C.To support Liz's idea.

D. To find an answer to the question.

58. succeed v. 成功,达成

用法小结:

作不及物动词。“成功做某事”不要说succeed to do sth.,而说succeed in doing sth.。例如:

He succeeded in getting a place at art school.

他被艺术学校录取了。

词性转换:

success n.成功;

successful(ly) adj.成功的;有成就的

反义词:fail v.失败

(2019,山东卷,阅读B)Xiaodong thinks textbooks should include more stories about how great scientists had to struggle tosucceed.

59. suddenadj. 突然的;n. 突然发生的事

用法小结:

主要作形容词,可作表语,可作定语;常用来修饰change;

作名词多见于all of a sudden短语中,表示“突然”。例如:

a sudden change in the weather

天气的突然变化

All of a sudden, the lights went out.

突然,灯都灭了。

形容表面,“平滑的,光滑的”,相当于flat。例如:

词性转换:

suddenly=all of a sudden adv.突然地;忽然

(2019,北京卷,阅读D)

32. The word "collapse" in Paragraph 5 probably means____________.

A. a sudden failure

B.the basic rule

C. a disappointing start

D. the gradual development

60. suggest v. 建议,提议

用法小结:

suggest sth.to sb.向某人建议某事;“建议做某事”不能说suggest (sb.) to do sth.,

而要说suggest doingsth.或者

suggest (that) sb. (should) do sth.。例如:

Jenny suggested meeting for a drink after work.

珍妮提议下班后一起喝一杯。

I suggest you call him first. 我建议你先给他打电话。

熟词僻义:还可以表示“显示,表明”,其后可接名词或that从句;常用于suggest sth. to sb.结构。例如:

What do these results suggest to you?

照你看,这些结果说明什么呢?

词性转换:

suggestion n.建议:是可数名词,注意区分advice(不可数名词)

同义词:advise v.建议

(2019,北京卷,阅读D)But dependency on a network suggests possibilities of being harmed easily.

61. supply v. &n. 供给,供应

用法小结→关联词组:

power supply电源;

water supply供水系统;

food supply食物供给

动词用法:

supply sth.to sb.=supply sb. with sth.

为某人供应某物。例如:

We can supply you with whatever you need.

我们可以提供任何你需要的东西。

名词用法:

①supply作不可数名词,指“供应/给,补给”这一动作;作可数名词,表示“供应量,供给量”。例如:

The electricity supply had been cut off.

电力供应被切断了。

Books were in short supply.

书籍供应短缺。

②复数形式supplies用来特指“(军队、探险队等的)补给(品)”。例如:

Our supplies were running out.

我们的补给快用完了。

词性转换:

supplier n.供应商;

supplementary adj.补充的;n.增补物

近义词:provide/offer v.提供

(2019,山东卷,阅读B)

32. Why did the U.S. order a ban on Huawei?

A. Huawei's sales in America were growing faster than Apple.

B. Huawei refused to supply services to the U.S. government.

C. They didn’t want Apple to sell parts and services to Huawei.

D. They thought Huawei collected information for the Chinese government.

62. supposev. 猜想,料想,认为;假定

用法小结:

①不用进行式,通常接that从句;例如:

I suppose they’re going to sell the house.

我认为他们准备卖掉这栋房子。

②be supposed to do/be sth.

应该做某事/是某事物。例如:

I’m not supposed to tell anyone.

我不能告诉任何人的。

What time are you supposed to be there?

你应该几点到那儿?

词性转换:

supposition n.推测;假定;

supposedly adv.可能

近义词:guess v.&n.猜测,猜想

(2019年,山东卷,单项选择)

9.To make rivers () than before, everybody is supposed to protect them.

A. dirty B. dirtier

C. clean D.cleaner

63. sureadj. 确信的,肯定的;adv. 的确,一定,当然

用法小结→关联词组:

for sure确实,毫无疑问地

形容词用法:

①be sure常接that从句;

not sure常接wh-从句;

be sure of (doing) sth.确定(做)某事;

be sure about sth.对某事有把握;

be sure to do sth.一定做某事。例如:

Are you sure that you know how to get there?

你肯定知道怎样到那里去吗?

Henry wasn’t sure how to answer this.

亨利不清楚该如何回答这个问题。

They were talking about her, she was sure of that.

他们在谈论她,她很肯定。

“That’s the man I saw last night.” “Are you sure about that?” “那就是我昨晚看见的那个男人。”“你确定吗?”

He’s sure to get nervous and say something stupid.

他肯定会紧张,说出一些愚蠢的话来。

②常用make sure表示“确保”或“查明,弄清楚”。例如:

I’ll lock the door, just to make sure no one goes inside.

我会锁上门,就为确保没人进去。

I wanted to make sure you were all right.

我想确认一下你是否没事。

副词用法:主要在口语中用于表达同意;有时会用sure enough果然,果真。例如:

“Can you give me a ride to work tomorrow?” “Sure.”

“明天我可以搭你的车去上班吗?”“当然可以。

Sure enough, Mike get lost again.

果然,迈克又迷路了。

词性转换:

surely adv.当然,无疑;

sureness n.确实

近义词:

certain adj.确定的,肯定的,确信的

(2019年,山东卷,动词应用)The driver, too, didn't do his best to make sure that his driving was safe.

64. surprisev. 使惊奇,使诧异;n. 惊奇,诧异

用法小结:

关联词组:

what a surprise真想不到;

a big surprise大吃一惊;

by surprise出其不意地

名词用法:

①指一种感觉,表示“惊奇,惊讶,诧异”,常见搭配有

in/with surprise惊讶地/诧异地;

to sb’s surprise另谋人惊讶地是;

give sb. a surprise让某人吃惊等。例如:

Bill looked at him in surprise.

比尔诧异地看着他。

Much to his surprise, she gave him her phone number.

令他颇感意外的是,她把电话号码给了他。

②指某事件,表示“意想不到的事,不同寻常的事”,或“令人惊喜的事物”。例如:

“I’ve got a surprise for you,” she said.

“我要给你一个惊喜。”她说道。

词性转换:

surprised adj.感到惊讶地;

surprising adj.令人惊人惊讶的,意外的;

surprisingly adv.惊人地;出人意外地

(2019年,江苏卷,完形)

When I'm asked to name my favourite place to eat in Suzhou, I will reply ___13___.

13.A. right away B. in surprise

C. at most D.over there

65. symbol n. 象征,标志;符号

用法小结:

①表示“象征,标志”,或表示“代表,有代表性的人或物”,其后常接介词of。例如:

This ring is a symbol of our love.

这枚戒指是我们爱情的象征。

②表示“符号,标记”,其后常接介词for。例如:

What is the chemical symbol for gold?

金的化学符号是什么?

词性转换:

symbolic adj.象征(性)的;

symbolically adv.象征性地;

symboliz(s)e v.作为……的象征

(2019年,江苏卷,阅读填空)By the Shang Dynasty, these symbols had become a well-developed writing system.

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